This paper presents SimCLR: a simple framework for contrastive learning of visual representations. We simplify recently proposed contrastive self-supervised learning algorithms without requiring specialized architectures or a memory bank. In order to understand what enables the contrastive prediction tasks to learn useful representations, we systematically study the major components of our framework. We show that (1) composition of data augmentations plays a critical role in defining effective predictive tasks, (2) introducing a learnable nonlinear transformation between the representation and the contrastive loss substantially improves the quality of the learned representations, and (3) contrastive learning benefits from larger batch sizes and more training steps compared to supervised learning. By combining these findings, we are able to considerably outperform previous methods for self-supervised and semi-supervised learning on ImageNet. A linear classifier trained on self-supervised representations learned by SimCLR achieves 76.5% top-1 accuracy, which is a 7% relative improvement over previous state-of-the-art, matching the performance of a supervised ResNet-50. When fine-tuned on only 1% of the labels, we achieve 85.8% top-5 accuracy, outperforming AlexNet with 100X fewer labels.
Outlier detection is one of the most important processes taken to create good, reliable data in machine learning. The most methods of outlier detection leverage an auxiliary reconstruction task by assuming that outliers are more difficult to be recovered than normal samples (inliers). However, it is not always true, especially for auto-encoder (AE) based models. They may recover certain outliers even outliers are not in the training data, because they do not constrain the feature learning. Instead, we think outlier detection can be done in the feature space by measuring the feature distance between outliers and inliers. We then propose a framework, MCOD, using a memory module and a contrastive learning module. The memory module constrains the consistency of features, which represent the normal data. The contrastive learning module learns more discriminating features, which boosts the distinction between outliers and inliers. Extensive experiments on four benchmark datasets show that our proposed MCOD achieves a considerable performance and outperforms nine state-of-the-art methods.