論文題目：Learning Conceptual-Contextual Embeddings for Medical Text
Recently, the emergence of pre-trained models (PTMs) has brought natural language processing (NLP) to a new era. In this survey, we provide a comprehensive review of PTMs for NLP. We first briefly introduce language representation learning and its research progress. Then we systematically categorize existing PTMs based on a taxonomy with four perspectives. Next, we describe how to adapt the knowledge of PTMs to the downstream tasks. Finally, we outline some potential directions of PTMs for future research. This survey is purposed to be a hands-on guide for understanding, using, and developing PTMs for various NLP tasks.
The steeply growing performance demands for highly power- and energy-constrained processing systems such as end-nodes of the internet-of-things (IoT) have led to parallel near-threshold computing (NTC), joining the energy-efficiency benefits of low-voltage operation with the performance typical of parallel systems. Shared-L1-memory multiprocessor clusters are a promising architecture, delivering performance in the order of GOPS and over 100 GOPS/W of energy-efficiency. However, this level of computational efficiency can only be reached by maximizing the effective utilization of the processing elements (PEs) available in the clusters. Along with this effort, the optimization of PE-to-PE synchronization and communication is a critical factor for performance. In this work, we describe a light-weight hardware-accelerated synchronization and communication unit (SCU) for tightly-coupled clusters of processors. We detail the architecture, which enables fine-grain per-PE power management, and its integration into an eight-core cluster of RISC-V processors. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed solution, we implemented the eight-core cluster in advanced 22nm FDX technology and evaluated performance and energy-efficiency with tunable microbenchmarks and a set of real-life applications and kernels. The proposed solution allows synchronization-free regions as small as 42 cycles, over 41 times smaller than the baseline implementation based on fast test-and-set access to L1 memory when constraining the microbenchmarks to 10% synchronization overhead. When evaluated on the real-life DSP-applications, the proposed SCU improves performance by up to 92% and 23% on average and energy efficiency by up to 98% and 39% on average.