Besides entity-centric knowledge, usually organized as Knowledge Graph (KG), events are also an essential kind of knowledge in the world, which trigger the spring up of event-centric knowledge representation form like Event KG (EKG). It plays an increasingly important role in many machine learning and artificial intelligence applications, such as intelligent search, question-answering, recommendation, and text generation. This paper provides a comprehensive survey of EKG from history, ontology, instance, and application views. Specifically, to characterize EKG thoroughly, we focus on its history, definitions, schema induction, acquisition, related representative graphs/systems, and applications. The development processes and trends are studied therein. We further summarize perspective directions to facilitate future research on EKG.

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知識圖譜(Knowledge Graph),在圖書情報界稱為知識域可視化或知識領域映射地圖,是顯示知識發展進程與結構關係的一係列各種不同的圖形,用可視化技術描述知識資源及其載體,挖掘、分析、構建、繪製和顯示知識及它們之間的相互聯係。 知識圖譜是通過將應用數學、圖形學、信息可視化技術、信息科學等學科的理論與方法與計量學引文分析、共現分析等方法結合,並利用可視化的圖譜形象地展示學科的核心結構、發展曆史、前沿領域以及整體知識架構達到多學科融合目的的現代理論。它能為學科研究提供切實的、有價值的參考。

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Graphs are widely used as a popular representation of the network structure of connected data. Graph data can be found in a broad spectrum of application domains such as social systems, ecosystems, biological networks, knowledge graphs, and information systems. With the continuous penetration of artificial intelligence technologies, graph learning (i.e., machine learning on graphs) is gaining attention from both researchers and practitioners. Graph learning proves effective for many tasks, such as classification, link prediction, and matching. Generally, graph learning methods extract relevant features of graphs by taking advantage of machine learning algorithms. In this survey, we present a comprehensive overview on the state-of-the-art of graph learning. Special attention is paid to four categories of existing graph learning methods, including graph signal processing, matrix factorization, random walk, and deep learning. Major models and algorithms under these categories are reviewed respectively. We examine graph learning applications in areas such as text, images, science, knowledge graphs, and combinatorial optimization. In addition, we discuss several promising research directions in this field.

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Knowledge graph reasoning is the fundamental component to support machine learning applications such as information extraction, information retrieval, and recommendation. Since knowledge graphs can be viewed as the discrete symbolic representations of knowledge, reasoning on knowledge graphs can naturally leverage the symbolic techniques. However, symbolic reasoning is intolerant of the ambiguous and noisy data. On the contrary, the recent advances of deep learning promote neural reasoning on knowledge graphs, which is robust to the ambiguous and noisy data, but lacks interpretability compared to symbolic reasoning. Considering the advantages and disadvantages of both methodologies, recent efforts have been made on combining the two reasoning methods. In this survey, we take a thorough look at the development of the symbolic, neural and hybrid reasoning on knowledge graphs. We survey two specific reasoning tasks, knowledge graph completion and question answering on knowledge graphs, and explain them in a unified reasoning framework. We also briefly discuss the future directions for knowledge graph reasoning.

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Human knowledge provides a formal understanding of the world. Knowledge graphs that represent structural relations between entities have become an increasingly popular research direction towards cognition and human-level intelligence. In this survey, we provide a comprehensive review of knowledge graph covering overall research topics about 1) knowledge graph representation learning, 2) knowledge acquisition and completion, 3) temporal knowledge graph, and 4) knowledge-aware applications, and summarize recent breakthroughs and perspective directions to facilitate future research. We propose a full-view categorization and new taxonomies on these topics. Knowledge graph embedding is organized from four aspects of representation space, scoring function, encoding models, and auxiliary information. For knowledge acquisition, especially knowledge graph completion, embedding methods, path inference, and logical rule reasoning, are reviewed. We further explore several emerging topics, including meta relational learning, commonsense reasoning, and temporal knowledge graphs. To facilitate future research on knowledge graphs, we also provide a curated collection of datasets and open-source libraries on different tasks. In the end, we have a thorough outlook on several promising research directions.

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Knowledge Graphs are increasingly becoming popular for a variety of downstream tasks like Question Answering and Information Retrieval. However, the Knowledge Graphs are often incomplete, thus leading to poor performance. As a result, there has been a lot of interest in the task of Knowledge Base Completion. More recently, Graph Neural Networks have been used to capture structural information inherently stored in these Knowledge Graphs and have been shown to achieve SOTA performance across a variety of datasets. In this survey, we understand the various strengths and weaknesses of the proposed methodology and try to find new exciting research problems in this area that require further investigation.

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Recent advances in research have demonstrated the effectiveness of knowledge graphs (KG) in providing valuable external knowledge to improve recommendation systems (RS). A knowledge graph is capable of encoding high-order relations that connect two objects with one or multiple related attributes. With the help of the emerging Graph Neural Networks (GNN), it is possible to extract both object characteristics and relations from KG, which is an essential factor for successful recommendations. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey of the GNN-based knowledge-aware deep recommender systems. Specifically, we discuss the state-of-the-art frameworks with a focus on their core component, i.e., the graph embedding module, and how they address practical recommendation issues such as scalability, cold-start and so on. We further summarize the commonly-used benchmark datasets, evaluation metrics as well as open-source codes. Finally, we conclude the survey and propose potential research directions in this rapidly growing field.

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In this paper we provide a comprehensive introduction to knowledge graphs, which have recently garnered significant attention from both industry and academia in scenarios that require exploiting diverse, dynamic, large-scale collections of data. After a general introduction, we motivate and contrast various graph-based data models and query languages that are used for knowledge graphs. We discuss the roles of schema, identity, and context in knowledge graphs. We explain how knowledge can be represented and extracted using a combination of deductive and inductive techniques. We summarise methods for the creation, enrichment, quality assessment, refinement, and publication of knowledge graphs. We provide an overview of prominent open knowledge graphs and enterprise knowledge graphs, their applications, and how they use the aforementioned techniques. We conclude with high-level future research directions for knowledge graphs.

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To solve the information explosion problem and enhance user experience in various online applications, recommender systems have been developed to model users preferences. Although numerous efforts have been made toward more personalized recommendations, recommender systems still suffer from several challenges, such as data sparsity and cold start. In recent years, generating recommendations with the knowledge graph as side information has attracted considerable interest. Such an approach can not only alleviate the abovementioned issues for a more accurate recommendation, but also provide explanations for recommended items. In this paper, we conduct a systematical survey of knowledge graph-based recommender systems. We collect recently published papers in this field and summarize them from two perspectives. On the one hand, we investigate the proposed algorithms by focusing on how the papers utilize the knowledge graph for accurate and explainable recommendation. On the other hand, we introduce datasets used in these works. Finally, we propose several potential research directions in this field.

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Knowledge graphs (KGs) serve as useful resources for various natural language processing applications. Previous KG completion approaches require a large number of training instances (i.e., head-tail entity pairs) for every relation. The real case is that for most of the relations, very few entity pairs are available. Existing work of one-shot learning limits method generalizability for few-shot scenarios and does not fully use the supervisory information; however, few-shot KG completion has not been well studied yet. In this work, we propose a novel few-shot relation learning model (FSRL) that aims at discovering facts of new relations with few-shot references. FSRL can effectively capture knowledge from heterogeneous graph structure, aggregate representations of few-shot references, and match similar entity pairs of reference set for every relation. Extensive experiments on two public datasets demonstrate that FSRL outperforms the state-of-the-art.

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In the era of big data, people face enormous challenges in acquiring information and knowledge. A knowledge graph (KG) lays the foundation for the knowledge-based organization and intelligent application in the Internet age with its powerful semantic processing capabilities and open organization capabilities. In recent years, the research and applications of large-scale knowledge graph libraries have attracted increasing attention in academic and industrial circles. The knowledge graph aims to describe the various entities or concepts and their relationships existing in the objective world, which constitutes a huge semantic network map. It usually stores knowledge in the form of triples (head entity, relationship, tail entity), which can be simplified to $(h, r, t)$.

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One of the key requirements to facilitate semantic analytics of information regarding contemporary and historical events on the Web, in the news and in social media is the availability of reference knowledge repositories containing comprehensive representations of events and temporal relations. Existing knowledge graphs, with popular examples including DBpedia, YAGO and Wikidata, focus mostly on entity-centric information and are insufficient in terms of their coverage and completeness with respect to events and temporal relations. EventKG presented in this paper is a multilingual event-centric temporal knowledge graph that addresses this gap. EventKG incorporates over 690 thousand contemporary and historical events and over 2.3 million temporal relations extracted from several large-scale knowledge graphs and semi-structured sources and makes them available through a canonical representation.

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