This paper shows that masked autoencoders (MAE) are scalable self-supervised learners for computer vision. Our MAE approach is simple: we mask random patches of the input image and reconstruct the missing pixels. It is based on two core designs. First, we develop an asymmetric encoder-decoder architecture, with an encoder that operates only on the visible subset of patches (without mask tokens), along with a lightweight decoder that reconstructs the original image from the latent representation and mask tokens. Second, we find that masking a high proportion of the input image, e.g., 75%, yields a nontrivial and meaningful self-supervisory task. Coupling these two designs enables us to train large models efficiently and effectively: we accelerate training (by 3x or more) and improve accuracy. Our scalable approach allows for learning high-capacity models that generalize well: e.g., a vanilla ViT-Huge model achieves the best accuracy (87.8%) among methods that use only ImageNet-1K data. Transfer performance in downstream tasks outperforms supervised pre-training and shows promising scaling behavior.
Deep learning has been successful in automating the design of features in machine learning pipelines. However, the algorithms optimizing neural network parameters remain largely hand-designed and computationally inefficient. We study if we can use deep learning to directly predict these parameters by exploiting the past knowledge of training other networks. We introduce a large-scale dataset of diverse computational graphs of neural architectures - DeepNets-1M - and use it to explore parameter prediction on CIFAR-10 and ImageNet. By leveraging advances in graph neural networks, we propose a hypernetwork that can predict performant parameters in a single forward pass taking a fraction of a second, even on a CPU. The proposed model achieves surprisingly good performance on unseen and diverse networks. For example, it is able to predict all 24 million parameters of a ResNet-50 achieving a 60% accuracy on CIFAR-10. On ImageNet, top-5 accuracy of some of our networks approaches 50%. Our task along with the model and results can potentially lead to a new, more computationally efficient paradigm of training networks. Our model also learns a strong representation of neural architectures enabling their analysis.
Transformer has been widely used for self-supervised pre-training in Natural Language Processing (NLP) and achieved great success. However, it has not been fully explored in visual self-supervised learning. Meanwhile, previous methods only consider the high-level feature and learning representation from a global perspective, which may fail to transfer to the downstream dense prediction tasks focusing on local features. In this paper, we present a novel Masked Self-supervised Transformer approach named MST, which can explicitly capture the local context of an image while preserving the global semantic information. Specifically, inspired by the Masked Language Modeling (MLM) in NLP, we propose a masked token strategy based on the multi-head self-attention map, which dynamically masks some tokens of local patches without damaging the crucial structure for self-supervised learning. More importantly, the masked tokens together with the remaining tokens are further recovered by a global image decoder, which preserves the spatial information of the image and is more friendly to the downstream dense prediction tasks. The experiments on multiple datasets demonstrate the effectiveness and generality of the proposed method. For instance, MST achieves Top-1 accuracy of 76.9% with DeiT-S only using 300-epoch pre-training by linear evaluation, which outperforms supervised methods with the same epoch by 0.4% and its comparable variant DINO by 1.0\%. For dense prediction tasks, MST also achieves 42.7% mAP on MS COCO object detection and 74.04% mIoU on Cityscapes segmentation only with 100-epoch pre-training.
Self-supervised learning methods are gaining increasing traction in computer vision due to their recent success in reducing the gap with supervised learning. In natural language processing (NLP) self-supervised learning and transformers are already the methods of choice. The recent literature suggests that the transformers are becoming increasingly popular also in computer vision. So far, the vision transformers have been shown to work well when pretrained either using a large scale supervised data or with some kind of co-supervision, e.g. in terms of teacher network. These supervised pretrained vision transformers achieve very good results in downstream tasks with minimal changes. In this work we investigate the merits of self-supervised learning for pretraining image/vision transformers and then using them for downstream classification tasks. We propose Self-supervised vIsion Transformers (SiT) and discuss several self-supervised training mechanisms to obtain a pretext model. The architectural flexibility of SiT allows us to use it as an autoencoder and work with multiple self-supervised tasks seamlessly. We show that a pretrained SiT can be finetuned for a downstream classification task on small scale datasets, consisting of a few thousand images rather than several millions. The proposed approach is evaluated on standard datasets using common protocols. The results demonstrate the strength of the transformers and their suitability for self-supervised learning. We outperformed existing self-supervised learning methods by large margin. We also observed that SiT is good for few shot learning and also showed that it is learning useful representation by simply training a linear classifier on top of the learned features from SiT. Pretraining, finetuning, and evaluation codes will be available under: https://github.com/Sara-Ahmed/SiT.
Deep supervised learning has achieved great success in the last decade. However, its deficiencies of dependence on manual labels and vulnerability to attacks have driven people to explore a better solution. As an alternative, self-supervised learning attracts many researchers for its soaring performance on representation learning in the last several years. Self-supervised representation learning leverages input data itself as supervision and benefits almost all types of downstream tasks. In this survey, we take a look into new self-supervised learning methods for representation in computer vision, natural language processing, and graph learning. We comprehensively review the existing empirical methods and summarize them into three main categories according to their objectives: generative, contrastive, and generative-contrastive (adversarial). We further investigate related theoretical analysis work to provide deeper thoughts on how self-supervised learning works. Finally, we briefly discuss open problems and future directions for self-supervised learning. An outline slide for the survey is provided.
Multi-modal pre-training models have been intensively explored to bridge vision and language in recent years. However, most of them explicitly model the cross-modal interaction between image-text pairs, by assuming that there exists strong semantic correlation between the text and image modalities. Since this strong assumption is often invalid in real-world scenarios, we choose to implicitly model the cross-modal correlation for large-scale multi-modal pre-training, which is the focus of the Chinese project `WenLan' led by our team. Specifically, with the weak correlation assumption over image-text pairs, we propose a two-tower pre-training model called BriVL within the cross-modal contrastive learning framework. Unlike OpenAI CLIP that adopts a simple contrastive learning method, we devise a more advanced algorithm by adapting the latest method MoCo into the cross-modal scenario. By building a large queue-based dictionary, our BriVL can incorporate more negative samples in limited GPU resources. We further construct a large Chinese multi-source image-text dataset called RUC-CAS-WenLan for pre-training our BriVL model. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the pre-trained BriVL model outperforms both UNITER and OpenAI CLIP on various downstream tasks.
Graph convolution is the core of most Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) and usually approximated by message passing between direct (one-hop) neighbors. In this work, we remove the restriction of using only the direct neighbors by introducing a powerful, yet spatially localized graph convolution: Graph diffusion convolution (GDC). GDC leverages generalized graph diffusion, examples of which are the heat kernel and personalized PageRank. It alleviates the problem of noisy and often arbitrarily defined edges in real graphs. We show that GDC is closely related to spectral-based models and thus combines the strengths of both spatial (message passing) and spectral methods. We demonstrate that replacing message passing with graph diffusion convolution consistently leads to significant performance improvements across a wide range of models on both supervised and unsupervised tasks and a variety of datasets. Furthermore, GDC is not limited to GNNs but can trivially be combined with any graph-based model or algorithm (e.g. spectral clustering) without requiring any changes to the latter or affecting its computational complexity. Our implementation is available online.
Large-scale labeled data are generally required to train deep neural networks in order to obtain better performance in visual feature learning from images or videos for computer vision applications. To avoid extensive cost of collecting and annotating large-scale datasets, as a subset of unsupervised learning methods, self-supervised learning methods are proposed to learn general image and video features from large-scale unlabeled data without using any human-annotated labels. This paper provides an extensive review of deep learning-based self-supervised general visual feature learning methods from images or videos. First, the motivation, general pipeline, and terminologies of this field are described. Then the common deep neural network architectures that used for self-supervised learning are summarized. Next, the main components and evaluation metrics of self-supervised learning methods are reviewed followed by the commonly used image and video datasets and the existing self-supervised visual feature learning methods. Finally, quantitative performance comparisons of the reviewed methods on benchmark datasets are summarized and discussed for both image and video feature learning. At last, this paper is concluded and lists a set of promising future directions for self-supervised visual feature learning.
We present a unified framework tackling two problems: class-specific 3D reconstruction from a single image, and generation of new 3D shape samples. These tasks have received considerable attention recently; however, existing approaches rely on 3D supervision, annotation of 2D images with keypoints or poses, and/or training with multiple views of each object instance. Our framework is very general: it can be trained in similar settings to these existing approaches, while also supporting weaker supervision scenarios. Importantly, it can be trained purely from 2D images, without ground-truth pose annotations, and with a single view per instance. We employ meshes as an output representation, instead of voxels used in most prior work. This allows us to exploit shading information during training, which previous 2D-supervised methods cannot. Thus, our method can learn to generate and reconstruct concave object classes. We evaluate our approach on synthetic data in various settings, showing that (i) it learns to disentangle shape from pose; (ii) using shading in the loss improves performance; (iii) our model is comparable or superior to state-of-the-art voxel-based approaches on quantitative metrics, while producing results that are visually more pleasing; (iv) it still performs well when given supervision weaker than in prior works.
We introduce an effective model to overcome the problem of mode collapse when training Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN). Firstly, we propose a new generator objective that finds it better to tackle mode collapse. And, we apply an independent Autoencoders (AE) to constrain the generator and consider its reconstructed samples as "real" samples to slow down the convergence of discriminator that enables to reduce the gradient vanishing problem and stabilize the model. Secondly, from mappings between latent and data spaces provided by AE, we further regularize AE by the relative distance between the latent and data samples to explicitly prevent the generator falling into mode collapse setting. This idea comes when we find a new way to visualize the mode collapse on MNIST dataset. To the best of our knowledge, our method is the first to propose and apply successfully the relative distance of latent and data samples for stabilizing GAN. Thirdly, our proposed model, namely Generative Adversarial Autoencoder Networks (GAAN), is stable and has suffered from neither gradient vanishing nor mode collapse issues, as empirically demonstrated on synthetic, MNIST, MNIST-1K, CelebA and CIFAR-10 datasets. Experimental results show that our method can approximate well multi-modal distribution and achieve better results than state-of-the-art methods on these benchmark datasets. Our model implementation is published here: https://github.com/tntrung/gaan
Recent studies have shown remarkable success in image-to-image translation for two domains. However, existing approaches have limited scalability and robustness in handling more than two domains, since different models should be built independently for every pair of image domains. To address this limitation, we propose StarGAN, a novel and scalable approach that can perform image-to-image translations for multiple domains using only a single model. Such a unified model architecture of StarGAN allows simultaneous training of multiple datasets with different domains within a single network. This leads to StarGAN's superior quality of translated images compared to existing models as well as the novel capability of flexibly translating an input image to any desired target domain. We empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on a facial attribute transfer and a facial expression synthesis tasks.